Relatie man vrouw in de sociaal economische context van Curaçao

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Relatie man vrouw in de sociaal economische context van Curaçao

Summary "Relatie man vrouw in de sociaal economische context van Curaçao"

Demographics

Both in 2001 and 2011, the majority of the population of Curacao was female. Between 2001 and 2011, the population grew from 130,627 to 150,536. In both 2001 and 2011, 46 percent of the population was male and 54 percent female. Sex ratio: In 2001, there were 86 men for each 100 women (sex ratio 0.86). In 2011, this had dropped to 0.84. The sex ratio varies by age group: Up to 10 years of age, it is 1.05 (both census years). For the 80+ group, it was 0.51 in 2001 and 0.56 in 2011.

In 2001, 83 percent of the male population of Curaçao consisted of Curaçao-born males, while 78 percent of the female population consisted of Curaçao-born females. Between 2001 and 2011, the figure for males dropped to 78 percent, and that for females to 74 percent.

When the population is broken down by country of birth, the large share of women born in Colombia, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica draws immediate attention. Of the “Immigration Top 10,” the only country with significantly larger numbers of males than females having migrated to Curaçao is Haiti.

Religion

More than 90 percent of the population adheres to one faith or another. In both census years, there were more females than males adhering to a faith. Percentagewise, there was a drop in this regard between 2001 and 2011.

The great majority of those who follow a religion are Roman Catholic, with the relative majority being men. The number of Roman Catholics dropped between 2001 and 2011. A drop was also seen among Protestants, among whom there is an equal distribution of the population between men and women. Adventists, likewise, do not show any differences between the percentage of men and women. This faith has seen a slight increase, while the Pentecostal Church saw a large one between 2001 and 2011. In the latter, in both census years, the share of women was higher than that of men.

The sex ratio is the highest (1.20 in 2011) among those not adhering to any faith, and the lowest (0.62 in 2001) in the Pentecostal Church.

There is no correlation between someone’s being the head of the household and the faith he adheres to, if any.

Health

Relative to women, men have a slightly more positive perception of how their own health compares to that of their peers. In 2001, 86 percent of men and 82 percent of women indicated perceiving their own health as being “(very) good.” This is a slight increase compared to 2011.

Men smoke more often than women. Both the percentage and the number of smoking men decreased between the two census years. Among women, there was a decrease in the percentage of women smokers, while the number of women remained unchanged.

Both in 2001 and 2011, more women than men stated suffering from long-term illness. The number of people of both sexes having one of the long-term ailments mentioned in the census grew between the two census years.

The three most common ailments among both men and women in both census years were high blood pressure, diabetes and CARA (Dutch umbrella term for asthma and chronic bronchitis).

For medical coverage, most men and women are insured with the SVB (Social Security Bank) 35% for both sexes in 2001. Between 2001 and 2011, there was an increase in the percentage of both sexes. The second most common type of medical coverage for both men and women in both census years was the PP (Pro Paupere) card. Women are more likely than men to hold a PP card, while men are more likely to be uninsured or to be insured through their employer.

Education

A clear turn can be observed in the area of education, especially among women. Young women are more highly educated than young men. Both in 2001 and 2011, the share of persons who had received elementary education only or no formal education at all was the lowest for women 25-34 years old. Among women over 65, that percentage is the highest. This same “reversal” is observed among those with a higher-education diploma: the largest share with such a diploma is found among women 25-34 years old, while the lowest is found among women 65 and over.

Up to the age of 15, no differences are seen in the level of participation of boys and girls in education. Between 15 and 18, there is a slight drop in the number of boys as compared to girls. After the age of 18, this gap widens.

Economically (in)active persons between 15 and 60 years old

The number of working men and women grew between 2001 and 2011, with the number of working women growing to the point of overtaking the number of working men. Percentagewise however, this is not yet the case.

The largest group of working persons consists of “regular employees,” with the share of men being lower than that of women in both census years. Compared to 2001, a drop is seen in both men and women who have an indefinite-period contract. Men are more likely than women to be employers, be self-employed or do odd jobs.

In 2011, most working people were employed in the “service personnel and salespersons” employment group. This is also the group with the highest number of women. Most men are in the “craft and related trade workers“ employment group, which is at the same time also the employment group with the fewest number of women.

The industry employing the highest number of people is ”wholesale and detail trade; automobile and motorbike repair[1]". The percentage of men and women here is practically the same, making this industry the most gender neutral of all. The largest difference between the percentages of men and women is observed in the construction Both in 2001 and 2011, there were slightly more women than men looking for work. The share of jobseekers decreased between the two census years. No difference is observed in the duration of unemployment between men and women.

Between 2001 and 2011, there was a drop in the percentage of inactive men and women. However the number of men did increase slightly. For most women, household work is the main reason to not participate in the labor market, while among men this is rarely mentioned as a reason. For men, the main reason for not being active is their personal health.

Income of the population over 15 years of age

Women in general earn less than men do. The average monthly gross income of men, whether employed, unemployed or inactive, is higher than that of women. In general, men’s gross hourly wage is higher than women’s. Despite a decrease between 2001 and 2011, this wage gap was still considerable in 2011. The income of men and women have been getting closer, mostly in the lowest and highest income groups.

While most unemployed do not have an income, this is most often the case among men. There is a higher percentage of women receiving social benefits compared to men.

In 2011, one third of inactive men and women had no income, a drop compared to 2001. There was also a drop for both sexes with regard to income from social benefits. There is a strong correlation between age and income type among inactives. The percentage of those with income from “pensions” and “labor disability benefits” grew between 2001 and 2011. Pensions and labor disability benefits accounted for the income of half of inactive men and women in 2011. The wage gap increases with age, while among those 65 and older, the term “pension gap” would be more accurate.

Some household characteristics

As a result of a decrease in household sizes, the number of households grew faster than the number of persons between 2001 and 2011. The number of female household heads grew faster, compared to male household heads, especially among singles. However, male household heads still far outnumbered females in 2011. In 2001, the sex ratio for household heads was 1.53, and 1.28 in 2011. This ratio increases as soon as there is a (male) partner present in the household. There is a significant difference in the percentage and number of men and women who were never married. In that group, as well as in the “divorced” and “widow(er)” groups, women are the majority.

The majority of those who are married also live together with their partner. The percentage of unmarried cohabitants is equal between men and women, with a slight increase for both sexes in 2011. Both in 2001 and 2011, women were the largest group of singles.

Dwellings

Male household heads are more likely to own the dwelling, compared to female household heads. Female household heads are more likely to rent from a foundation. There is no difference between male and female household heads when it comes to renting from individuals.

In general, when the household head is male, the dwelling is more likely to have more bathrooms and toilets. Between the two census years, there was an increase in the number of bedrooms, bathrooms and toilets in the dwellings of both male and female household heads.

In 2001, discrepancies could still be observed in the quality of dwellings. Between 2001 and 2011, the dwellings of households headed by women became lower maintenance, largely eliminating the differences between male and female household heads with respect to the quality of the dwelling’s roof and walls. 

Ownership of electronic devices in dwellings grew between 2001 and 2011. The percentage  of male heads of the household stating that they possess an electronic device was higher than that of female household heads in both census years. Between 2001 and 2011, female household heads did narrow the gap for ownership of devices (already existing in 2001). Ownership of automobiles and motorbikes was likewise higher among men in both census years. Between the two census years, this difference became slightly smaller. In 2001, almost half (48%) of female household heads and more than one fifth (21%) of male household heads had no automobile. In 2011, this was still the case with one third (39%) of female household heads and 19 percent of their male counterparts.

 

[1] See ISIC rev. 4, available upon request from the CBS of Curaçao. And/or https://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=27